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J Mol Biol. 2011 Dec 2;414(3):313-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.10.023. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

S-glutathionylation of cysteine 99 in the APE1 protein impairs abasic endonuclease activity.

Author information

  • 1Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Abstract

Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central participant in the base excision repair pathway, exhibiting AP endonuclease activity that incises the DNA backbone 5' to an abasic site. Besides its prominent role as a DNA repair enzyme, APE1 was separately identified as a protein called redox effector factor 1, which is able to enhance the DNA binding activity of several transcription factors through a thiol-exchange-based reduction-oxidation mechanism. In the present study, we found that human APE1 is S-glutathionylated under conditions of oxidative stress both in the presence of glutathione in vitro and in cells. S-glutathionylated APE1 displayed significantly reduced AP endonuclease activity on abasic-site-containing oligonucleotide substrates, a result stemming from impaired DNA binding capacity. The combination of site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometric analysis identified Cys99 in human APE1 as the critical residue for the S-glutathionylation that leads to reduced AP endonuclease activity. This modification is reversible by reducing agents, which restore APE1 incision function. Our studies describe a novel posttranslational modification of APE1 that regulates the DNA repair function of the protein.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

PMID:
22024594
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3373313
Free PMC Article

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