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Antiviral Res. 2011 Dec;92(3):470-8. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.10.009. Epub 2011 Oct 15.

Virucidal mechanism of action of NVC-422, a novel antimicrobial drug for the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis.

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  • 1NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Emeryville, CA 94608, USA.

Abstract

Human adenoviral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious eye infection affecting millions of people world-wide. If untreated, it can further develop into keratitis, corneal ulceration, scarring and possible blindness. Despite the significant patient morbidity and socio-economic costs, it is an unmet medical need with no FDA approved treatment. Here, we demonstrate the virucidal activity of NVC-422 (N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine) against adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and investigated its mechanism of action of Ad5 inactivation. NVC-422 inhibits Ad5-induced loss of cell viability in vitro with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 9 to 23 μM. NVC-422 does not cause any cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 250 μM. Invitro, NVC-422 inactivates Ad5 but does not interfere with viral replication, indicating that NVC-422 acts on the extracellular adenovirus as a virucidal agent. NVC-422 inactivates Ad5 by oxidative inactivation of key viral proteins such as fiber and hexon as evidenced by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and reversed-phase HPLC. These data, combined with measurements of the kinetics of the NVC-422 reactivity with selected amino acids, indicate that the changes in the viral proteins are caused by the selective oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids. The conformational changes of the viral proteins result in the destruction of the viral morphology as shown by transmission electron microscopy. In summary, NVC-422 exhibits virucidal activity against Ad5 by the oxidative inactivation of key viral proteins, leading to the loss of viral integrity and infectivity.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22024427
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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