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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2011 Nov;27(3):609-20, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2011.07.007.

Control of paratuberculosis in small ruminants.

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  • 1Mycobacteria Brucella Section, Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Ames, IA 50010, USA.


The clinical presentation of paratuberculosis in small ruminants is unthriftiness (poor body condition); severe diarrhea is not a common clinical sign. In the USA, goats are primarily infected with bovine strains of paratuberculosis and sheep are primarily infected with ovine strains. Because ovine strains cannot be easily cultured, confirmation of a diagnosis is best done by polymerase chain reaction on tissue or fecal samples. Control programs must be tailored to the business objectives of the herd/flock owner and primarily involved changes in herd management, with diagnostic testing used strategically.

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