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Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4872-85.

Multiple factors bind the upstream activation sites of the yeast enolase genes ENO1 and ENO2: ABFI protein, like repressor activator protein RAP1, binds cis-acting sequences which modulate repression or activation of transcription.

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  • 1Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616.


Binding sites for three distinct proteins were mapped within the upstream activation sites (UAS) of the yeast enolase genes ENO1 and ENO2. Sequences that overlapped the UAS1 elements of both enolase genes bound a protein which was identified as the product of the RAP1 regulatory gene. Sequences within the UAS2 element of the ENO2 gene bound a second protein which corresponded to the ABFI (autonomously replicating sequence-binding factor) protein. A protein designated EBF1 (enolase-binding factor) bound to sequences which overlapped the UAS2 element in ENO1. There was a good correlation among all of the factor-binding sites and the location of sequences required for UAS activity identified by deletion mapping analysis. This observation suggested that the three factors play a role in transcriptional activation of the enolase genes. UAS elements which bound the RAP1 protein or the ABFI protein modulated glucose-dependent induction of ENO1 and ENO2 expression. The ABFI-binding site in ENO2 overlapped sequences required for UAS2 activity in wild-type strains and for repression of ENO2 expression in strains carrying a null mutation in the positive regulatory gene GCR1. These latter results showed that the ABFI protein, like the RAP1 protein, bound sequences required for positive as well as negative regulation of gene expression. These observations strongly suggest that the biological functions of the RAP1 and ABFI proteins are similar.

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