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Mol Pharm. 2011 Dec 5;8(6):2476-83. doi: 10.1021/mp200395f. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Deficiency of multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 enhances renal accumulation of paraquat and deteriorates kidney injury in mice.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.


Multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1/solute carrier 47A1) mediates cellular transport of a variety of structurally diverse compounds. Paraquat (PQ), which has been characterized in vitro as a MATE1 substrate, is a widely used herbicide and can cause severe toxicity to humans after exposure. However, the contribution of MATE1 to PQ disposition in vivo has not been determined. In the present study, we generated Mate1-deficient (Mate1-/-) mice and performed toxicokinetic analyses of PQ in Mate1-/- and wild-type (Mate1+/+) mice. After a single intravenous administration of PQ (50 mg/kg), Mate1-/- mice exhibited significantly higher plasma PQ concentrations than Mate1+/+ mice. The renal PQ concentration was markedly increased in Mate1-/- mice compared with Mate1+/+ mice. The subsequent nephrotoxicity of PQ were examined in these mice. Three days after intraperitoneal administration of PQ (20 mg/kg), the transcript levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (Lcn2) and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in the kidney were remarkably enhanced in the Mate1-/- mice. This was accompanied by apparent difference in renal histology between Mate1-/- and Mate1+/+ mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mate1 is responsible for renal elimination of PQ in vivo and the deficiency of Mate1 function confers deteriorated kidney injury caused by PQ in mice.

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