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J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2012 Jul;19(4):465-75. doi: 10.1007/s00534-011-0457-7.

Phase I trial of preoperative intratumoral injection of immature dendritic cells and OK-432 for resectable pancreatic cancer patients.

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  • 1Department of Regenerative Surgery, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.



To determine the feasibility, safety and histological change of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle injection (PEU-FNI) of immature DCs (iDCs) with OK-432 in pancreatic cancer patients.


Nine patients enrolled in the trial (DC group) and were compared with 15 patients operated on without iDC injection (non-DC group). Adverse events of PEU-FNI and postoperative complications were evaluated according to CTC-AE ver.3.0 and the Clavien-Dindo classification/ISGPF definition, respectively. Histological changes within the tumor and lymph nodes were evaluated by immunohistochemical examination of infiltrating inflammatory cells (CD4+, CD8+, Foxp3+ and CD83+).


There were no severe toxicities following PEU-FNI, except for one transient grade 3 fever, and there were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. Colliquative necrosis and diffusely scattered TUNEL-positive cells were observed at the injection sites. CD83+ cells significantly accumulated in the regional lymph nodes of the DC group as well as Foxp3+ cells in the regional and distant lymph nodes. The two DC group patients, one of which was stage IV with distant lymph node metastasis, survived more than 5 years without requiring adjuvant theraphy.


PEU-FNI was feasible and safe, and further study needs to confirm and enhance antitumor responses.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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