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Nucleus. 2011 Sep-Oct;2(5):358-69. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/nucl.2.5.17860. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Roles of chromatin insulator proteins in higher-order chromatin organization and transcription regulation.

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  • 1Centre de Biochimie Structurale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Institut National de la Santé et la Recherche Médicale, 29 rue de Navacelles, 34090, Montpellier, France.

Abstract

Eukaryotic chromosomes are condensed into several hierarchical levels of complexity: DNA is wrapped around core histones to form nucleosomes, nucleosomes form a higher-order structure called chromatin, and chromatin is subsequently compartmentalized in part by the combination of multiple specific or unspecific long-range contacts. The conformation of chromatin at these three levels greatly influences DNA metabolism and transcription. One class of chromatin regulatory proteins called insulator factors may organize chromatin both locally, by setting up barriers between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and globally by establishing platforms for long-range interactions. Here, we review recent data revealing a global role of insulator proteins in the regulation of transcription through the formation of clusters of long-range interactions that impact different levels of chromatin organization.

PMID:
21983085
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3796873
Free PMC Article
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