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Mol Carcinog. 2012 Nov;51(11):907-15. doi: 10.1002/mc.20860. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

New insights into the influence of cigarette smoking on urothelial carcinogenesis: smoking-induced gene expression in tumor-free urothelium might discriminate muscle-invasive from nonmuscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Mannheim Medical Center, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.


Smoking is the main risk factor for urothelial bladder cancer. In former smokers the risk decreases but does not reach the low level of never smokers. This indicates reversible and permanent smoking-derived genetic alterations. Transcriptional changes may point to mechanisms, how smoking promotes urothelial bladder cancer. To identify smoking-derived transcriptional changes we performed gene expression profiling in current, former, and never smokers, using tumor and tumor-free urothelium from patients with nonmuscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (NMIBC) or muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC). Smoking turned out to influence gene expression much less than tumor stage (NMIBC or MIBC) and tumor transformation (tumor-free or tumor). Smoking seemed to influence gene expression in patients with MIBC more strongly compared to those with NMIBC. The least irreversible changes after smoking cessation were proposed in tumor-free urothelium from patients with NMIBC. Growth factors and oncogenes were up-regulated in tumor-free urothelium from smokers with MIBC but not from smokers with NMIBC. A panel of genes up-regulated in smokers have potential for early detection and distinction of MIBC from NMIBC using tumor-free tissue.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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