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Uirusu. 2011 Jun;61(1):67-72.

[Mechanisms for inhibition of retrovirus replication by APOBEC3 family].

[Article in Japanese]

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  • 1National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, 4-1-1 San-no-Maru, Naka-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 460-0001, Japan.


Human cells developed the defense systems against retrovirus infections during the evolutions. These systems include retroviral restrictions by DNA cytidine deaminases of APOBEC3 family (A, B, C, DE, F, G, and H), which are potent factors to block the viral replication by blocking reverse transcription and/or integration and by hypermutating viral cDNA. In case of HIV-1, the viral protein, Vif abrogates the APOBEC3F/G function through specific machinery of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Without Vif, APOBEC3F/G are incorporated into virus particles and block reverse transcription and/or integration in a newly infected cell. Recent advances in our understanding about biochemical and structure-biological characteristics of the enzymes provide new insights to reveal more detailed molecular mechanisms for anti-retroviral activity by APOBEC3 family. Here I briefly review how APOBEC3 proteins block retrovirus replications, focusing on APOBEC3G.

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