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PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25211. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025211. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Genomic structure of and genome-wide recombination in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C progenitor isolate EM93.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Abstract

The diploid isolate EM93 is the main ancestor to the widely used Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid laboratory strain, S288C. In this study, we generate a high-resolution overview of the genetic differences between EM93 and S288C. We show that EM93 is heterozygous for >45,000 polymorphisms, including large sequence polymorphisms, such as deletions and a Saccharomyces paradoxus introgression. We also find that many large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) are associated with Ty-elements and sub-telomeric regions. We identified 2,965 genetic markers, which we then used to genotype 120 EM93 tetrads. In addition to deducing the structures of all EM93 chromosomes, we estimate that the average EM93 meiosis produces 144 detectable recombination events, consisting of 87 crossover and 31 non-crossover gene conversion events. Of the 50 polymorphisms showing the highest levels of non-crossover gene conversions, only three deviated from parity, all of which were near heterozygous LSPs. We find that non-telomeric heterozygous LSPs significantly reduce meiotic recombination in adjacent intervals, while sub-telomeric LSPs have no discernable effect on recombination. We identified 203 recombination hotspots, relatively few of which are hot for both non-crossover gene conversions and crossovers. Strikingly, we find that recombination hotspots show limited conservation. Some novel hotspots are found adjacent to heterozygous LSPs that eliminate other hotspots, suggesting that hotspots may appear and disappear relatively rapidly.

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