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Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011 Sep;38(3):477-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2011.05.005.

The menopausal transition and cardiovascular risk.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.


The incidence of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading single cause of death among women, increases substantially after menopause. This may be related to adverse changes in cardiovascular risk factors that occur during the menopausal transition. Proatherogenic changes in lipid and apolipoprotein profiles seem to be specifically related to ovarian aging; unfavorable changes in other cardiovascular risk factors may be influenced more by chronologic aging. Whether these changes are due to aging or to menopause itself, increased attention to risk factor modification in the pre- and perimenopausal years will help reduce future cardiovascular disease risk among women.

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