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Science. 2011 Sep 30;333(6051):1878-81. doi: 10.1126/science.1202775.

Diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures.

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  • 1Department of Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.


We identified individual-level diurnal and seasonal mood rhythms in cultures across the globe, using data from millions of public Twitter messages. We found that individuals awaken in a good mood that deteriorates as the day progresses--which is consistent with the effects of sleep and circadian rhythm--and that seasonal change in baseline positive affect varies with change in daylength. People are happier on weekends, but the morning peak in positive affect is delayed by 2 hours, which suggests that people awaken later on weekends.

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