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Artif Organs. 2012 Mar;36(3):282-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01349.x. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Effects of acetate-free citrate-containing dialysate on metabolic acidosis, anemia, and malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine Division of Kidney and Dialysis, Hyogo College of Medicine Seishoukai Aoi Hospital, Nishinomiya, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Erratum in

  • Artif Organs. 2013 Aug;37(8):746.


Previously, dialysate contained small amounts of acetate as an alkaline buffer. Recently, acetate-free dialysate (A[-]D) has been available. We evaluated the clinical effect of A(-)D over acetate-containing dialysate (A(+)D) on acid-base balance, anemia, and nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Twenty-nine patients on MHD were treated with A(+)D for 4 months (first A(+)D), switched to A(-)D for 4 months, and returned to A(+)D for the next 4-month period (second A(+)D). Metabolic acidosis: Serum bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) levels did not change in patients with normal HCO3(-) levels (≥20 mEq/L) throughout the study. Meanwhile, in patients with initially low HCO3(-) levels, it was significantly increased during the A(-)D period only. Anemia: In patients with target hemoglobin (Hb) ≥10 g/dL, Hb levels were maintained during the study period, even if the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) decreased. In patients with low Hb levels, it was significantly increased in the A(-)D period without increasing ESA or iron doses. Nutritional Condition: In patients with normal albumin levels (≥3.8 g/dL), albumin did not change throughout the study period. However, in patients with lower albumin levels, it was significantly increased during the A(-)D period. These improvements in metabolic acidosis, anemia, and nutrition in the A(-)D period completely dissipated during the second A(+)D period. Hemodialysis (HD) with A(-)D may improve a patient's clinical status with intractable metabolic acidosis, hyporesponsiveness to ESA, and malnutrition that were not normalized in HD with A(+)D.

© 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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