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Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(8):5213-37. doi: 10.3390/ijms12085213. Epub 2011 Aug 15.

Mechanisms of mycotoxin-induced neurotoxicity through oxidative stress-associated pathways.

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  • 1Nippon Institute for Biological Science, 9-2221-1, Shin-Machi, Ome, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan.


Among many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, macrocyclic trichothecenes, fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and ochratochin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce neurotoxicity in rodent models. T-2 toxin induces neuronal cell apoptosis in the fetal and adult brain. Macrocyclic trichothecenes bring about neuronal cell apoptosis and inflammation in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. FB(1) induces neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex, concurrent with disruption of de novo ceramide synthesis. OTA causes acute depletion of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, accompanying evidence of neuronal cell apoptosis in the substantia nigra, striatum and hippocampus. This paper reviews the mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-associated pathways.


T-2 toxin; fumonisin B1; macrocyclic trichothecenes; neurotoxicity; ochratoxin A

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