Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Urol. 2011 Nov;186(5):1986-90. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.06.061. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

Effect of smoking status on seminal parameters and apoptotic markers in infertile men.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.



We assessed semen parameters, sperm apoptotic markers and seminal plasma cotinine in infertile smokers.


A total of 160 men were divided into 4 equal groups, including fertile smokers, fertile nonsmokers, infertile smokers and infertile nonsmokers. Smoking was classified as mild--fewer than 10, moderate--10 to 20 or heavy--more than 20 cigarettes daily. All men underwent semen analysis, and assessment of sperm caspase-9, Smac/DIABLO, DNA fragmentation and seminal plasma cotinine.


Infertile men, particularly smokers, have significantly lower semen variables and significantly higher sperm Smac/DIABLO, caspase-9 activity, the percent of DNA fragmentation and seminal plasma cotinine. The mean number of cigarettes smoked daily and smoking duration significantly correlated positively with sperm Smac/DIABLO, caspase-9 activity, the percent of DNA fragmentation and seminal plasma cotinine, and significantly correlated negatively with tested semen variables. Heavy smoking was associated with a significant increase in sperm Smac/DIABLO, caspase-9 activity and seminal plasma cotinine, and with a significant decrease in tested semen variables compared with those in moderate or mild smokers.


Smoking has a negative impact on semen variables. It is associated with increased sperm caspase-9, Smac/DIABLO and the percent of DNA fragmentation, especially in infertile heavy smokers.

Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk