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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2011 Oct;3(10):4142-53. doi: 10.1021/am201017v. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

In vitro physicochemical properties, osteogenic activity, and immunocompatibility of calcium silicate-gelatin bone grafts for load-bearing applications.

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  • 1Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan.


The use of a composite made of natural polymer gelatin and bioactive calcium silicate resembling the morphology and properties of natural bone may provide a solution to the problem of ceramic brittleness for load-bearing applications. The in vitro bioactivity, degradability, osteogenic activity, and immunocompatibility of three types of calcium silicate-gelatin composite bone grafts were characterized. The osteogenic activity and immunocompatibility were evaluated by incubating the bone grafts with human dental pulp cells. After soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 day, all materials were covered with clusters of "bone-like" apatite spherulites. The control material without gelatin exhibited an insignificant change in strength, degradability, and porosity and a small weight loss of 6% after 180 days of soaking in the SBF solution. In contrast, the soaking time imposed in this study did have a statistically significant effect on compressive strength, porosity, and weight loss of the gelatin-containing composites. After 180 days of soaking, the composite with 10 wt % gelatin lost 47% and 10% in compressive strength and weight, respectively, with a porosity of 23%. However, the presence of gelatin promoted greater cell attachment and proliferation on the composite bone grafts. Pulp cells on the calcium silicate-gelatin bone grafts expressed higher levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein. The inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1 expression and the activation of interleukin-10 were increased with increasing gelatin content. Overall, these findings provide evidence that composite bone grafts containing 10 wt % gelatin with a high initial strength were bioactive, nontoxic, and osteogenic and may be able to promote bone healing for load-bearing applications.

© 2011 American Chemical Society

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