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J Cell Biol. 2011 Sep 19;194(6):815-24. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201102090.

Review series: TOR kinase complexes and cell migration.

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  • 1Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Cell migration is a fundamental process in a wide array of biological and pathological responses. It is regulated by complex signal transduction pathways in response to external cues that couple to growth factor and chemokine receptors. In recent years, the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase, as part of either TOR complex 1 (TORC1) or TOR complex 2 (TORC2), has been shown to be an important signaling component linking external signals to the cytoskeletal machinery in a variety of cell types and organisms. Thus, these complexes have emerged as key regulators of cell migration and chemotaxis.

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