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Gastroenterology. 2011 Dec;141(6):2109-18. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.09.015. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Gut-tropic T cells that express integrin α4β7 and CCR9 are required for induction of oral immune tolerance in mice.

Author information

  • 1Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Induction of oral immune tolerance (OT) blocks proinflammatory responses to orally administered antigens and might be used to treat autoimmune conditions. We investigated whether gut-tropic T cells that express the integrin α4β7 and the chemokine receptor CCR9 are required for OT.

METHODS:

Skin delayed-type hypersensitivity and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis were used to monitor OT in mice. To assess the role of receptors that mediate localization of lymphocytes to the gut (gut-homing receptors) in induction of OT, we studied CCR9(-/-) and β7(-/-) mice and also blocked the α4β7 ligand MAdCAM-1 in wild-type mice. We used DEREG and Scurfy mice to assess the role of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and IL-10(-/-) and IL-10Rβ(-/-) mice to examine the role of interleukin (IL)-10 in induction of OT.

RESULTS:

OT could not be induced in CCR9(-/-) or β7(-/-) mice, or when MAdCAM-1 was blocked in wild-type mice, indicating that gut-homing receptors are required for oral tolerization. Consistent with the role of all-trans retinoic acid in inducing gut-homing T cells, OT could not be induced in mice depleted of vitamin A. OT was rescued in CCR9(-/-) mice following adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells, but not CCR9(-/-) or β7(-/-) T cells. Gut-homing T cells are therefore necessary and sufficient to induce OT. Wild-type Treg and IL-10 were required to restore OT to CCR9(-/-) mice, indicating that homing and functional differentiation of IL-10-producing Treg in the gut is required for OT. Conversely, transfer of CCR9(-/-) or β7(-/-) T cells to wild-type mice partially inhibited OT.

CONCLUSIONS:

Expression of CCR9 and α4β7 on T cells and their subsequent localization to the gut is required for induction of OT in mice. Therapies designed to block gut-homing receptors might, under some conditions, interfere with normal tolerogenic mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa.

Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21925467
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3222333
Free PMC Article

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