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Neuroscience. 2011 Nov 24;196:124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.064. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Preclinical pharmacology of TP1, a novel potent triple reuptake inhibitor with antidepressant properties.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery Technologies and School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong 264003, PR China.


Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) that block the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT) are being developed as a new class of antidepressant that may have better efficacy and fewer side effects compared with traditional antidepressants. The purpose of this study was to characterize a new chemical entity, 4-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)ethyl] phenyl 4-methoxybenzoate hydrochloride (TP1). TP1 was designed as a prodrug of desvenlafaxine. Competitive radioligand binding assays were performed using cells expressing the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT), the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter (hSERT), and the human norepinephrine (NE) transporter (hNET) with K(i) values for TP1 of 190 nM, 2076 nM, and 1023 nM, respectively. Uptake assays were performed with IC(50) values for TP1 of 712 nM, 521 nM, and 628 nM, respectively. TP1 (0.06 mmol/kg, orally) rapidly penetrated rat brain and hypothalamus, translated into desvenlafaxine within 1 h, and demonstrated higher bioavailability and better pharmacokinetic properties than desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS). TP1 (0.06 mmol/kg, orally) significantly increased extracellular levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT compared with baseline in the rat hypothalamus by microdialysis assay. In dose-response assays, oral administration of TP1 reduced the time of immobility in a dose-dependent manner during tail suspension test and forced swimming test (FST). This antidepressant-like effect manifests in the absence of significant increases in motor activity even at doses of up to 32 mg/kg. The ability of TP1 to inhibit the reuptake of three biogenic amines closely linked to the etiology of depression may result in a therapeutic profile different from antidepressants that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and/or NE.

Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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