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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Nov;205(5):494.e1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.07.009. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy using various energy sources in swine: a histopathologic assessment.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, USA.



Analyze energy-induced damage to the swine vagina during laparoscopic hysterectomy.


Laparoscopic colpotomy was performed in swine using ultrasonic, monopolar, and bipolar energy. Specimens (n = 22) from 13 swine were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for energy-related damage. The distal scalpel-cut margin was used as reference. Energy induced damage was assessed by gynecologic and veterinary pathologists blinded to energy source.


Injury was most apparent on Masson's trichrome, demonstrating clear injury demarcation, allowing consistent, quantitative damage measurements. Mean injury was 0 ± 0 μM (scalpel, n = 22), 782 ± 359 μM (ultrasonic, n = 7), 2016 ± 1423 μM (monopolar, n = 8), and 3011 ± 1239 μM (bipolar, n = 7). Using scalpel as the reference, all were significant (P < .001).


All energy sources demonstrated tissue damage, with ultrasonic showing the least and bipolar the greatest. Further study of tissue damage relative to cuff closure at laparoscopic hysterectomy is warranted.

Published by Mosby, Inc.

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