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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Nov 1;3(11):a005017. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a005017.

Cross talk among TGF-β signaling pathways, integrins, and the extracellular matrix.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York 10016, USA.


The growth factor TGF-β is secreted in a latent complex consisting of three proteins: TGF-β, an inhibitor (latency-associated protein, LAP, which is derived from the TGF-β propeptide) and an ECM-binding protein (one of the latent TGF-β binding proteins, or LTBPs). LTBPs interact with fibrillins and other ECM components and thus function to localize latent TGF-β in the ECM. LAP contains an integrin-binding site (RGD), and several RGD-binding integrins are able to activate latent TGF-β through binding this site. Mutant mice defective in integrin-mediated activators, and humans and mice with fibrillin gene mutations, show the critical role of ECM and integrins in regulating TGF-β signaling.

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