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Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov;34(11):2341-6. doi: 10.2337/dc11-0985. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Author information

  • 1School of Molecular Bioscience and Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is rising. There is little evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of one dietary therapy over another. We aimed to investigate the effect of a low-glycemic index (LGI) versus a conventional high-fiber diet on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal anthropometry, and maternal metabolic profile in GDM.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Ninety-nine women (age 26-42 years; mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI 24 ± 5 kg/m²) diagnosed with GDM at 20-32 weeks' gestation were randomized to follow either an LGI (n = 50; target glycemic index [GI] ~50) or a high-fiber moderate-GI diet (HF) (n = 49; target GI ~60). Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from medical records.

RESULTS:

The LGI group achieved a modestly lower GI than the HF group (mean ± SEM 47 ± 1 vs. 53 ± 1; P < 0.001). At birth, there was no significant difference in birth weight (LGI 3.3 ± 0.1 kg vs. HF 3.3 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.619), birth weight centile (LGI 52.5 ± 4.3 vs. HF 52.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.969), prevalence of macrosomia (LGI 2.1% vs. HF 6.7%; P = 0.157), insulin treatment (LGI 53% vs. HF 65%; P = 0.251), or adverse pregnancy outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

In intensively monitored women with GDM, an LGI diet and a conventional HF diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes.

PMID:
21900148
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3198285
Free PMC Article
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