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J Neurosci. 2011 Aug 31;31(35):12444-8. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1996-11.2011.

Training-induced neural plasticity in golf novices.

Author information

  • 1Institute of Psychology, Division Neuropsychology and International Normal Aging and Plasticity Imaging Center, University of Zurich, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland. l.bezzola@psychologie.uzh.ch

Abstract

Previous neuroimaging studies in the field of motor learning have shown that learning a new skill induces specific changes of neural gray and white matter in human brain areas necessary to control the practiced task. Former longitudinal studies investigating motor skill learning have used strict training protocols with little ecological validity rather than physical leisure activities, although there are several retrospective and cross-sectional studies suggesting neuroprotective effects of physical leisure activities. In the present longitudinal MRI study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate training-induced gray matter changes in golf novices between the age of 40 and 60 years, an age period when an active life style is assumed to counteract cognitive decline. As a main result, we demonstrate that 40 h of golf practice, performed as a leisure activity with highly individual training protocols, are associated with gray matter increases in a task-relevant cortical network encompassing sensorimotor regions and areas belonging to the dorsal stream. A new and striking result is the relationship between training intensity (time needed to complete the 40 training hours) and structural changes observed in the parieto-occipital junction. Thus, we demonstrate that a physical leisure activity induces training-dependent changes in gray matter and assume that a strict and controlled training protocol is not mandatory for training-induced adaptations of gray matter.

PMID:
21880905
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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