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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Nov;20(11):1635-43. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2465. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Risk factors for nonadherence with Pap testing in HIV-infected women.

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  • 1Boston University School of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, 850 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118, USA.



HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical cancer; thus, adherence with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for inadequate Pap testing in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women at a large urban safety net HIV clinic.


This retrospective cohort study assessed HIV-infected women aged 18?60 years in care between October 1, 2003, and March 31, 2008, for risk factors for inadequate Pap testing. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals (CI) and multivariate analyses with generalized estimating equations for correlated data were calculated.


Of 549 women, 293 (53.4%) had a Pap test during each follow-up period. Women who were older, white or Hispanic race/ethnicity, U.S. born, unemployed, drug users, and those with advanced HIV had increased odds of no Pap testing in unadjusted analyses. In multivariate analyses, U.S.-born women who were white or unemployed or had a baseline CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) had increased odds of no Pap testing (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1; OR 2.3, CI 1.0-5.0; OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9, respectively). For non-U.S.-born women, age ?50 years (OR 3.9, CI 1.7-9.0), non-English-speaking status (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.4), and drug use (OR 5.8, CI 2.5-13.9) were associated with no Pap testing.


U.S.-born status and low CD4 count were associated with increased odds of inadequate Pap testing. Further study is needed to identify interventions to improve Pap testing adherence in this high-risk group.

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