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J Vis Exp. 2011 Aug 19;(54). pii: 2912. doi: 10.3791/2912.

A high throughput in situ hybridization method to characterize mRNA expression patterns in the fetal mouse lower urogenital tract.

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  • 1Department of Comparative Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA.

Abstract

Development of the lower urogenital tract (LUT) is an intricate process. This complexity is evidenced during formation of the prostate from the fetal male urethra, which relies on androgenic signals and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions(1,2). Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for prostate development may reveal growth mechanisms that are inappropriately reawakened later in life to give rise to prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The developing LUT is anatomically complex. By the time prostatic budding begins on 16.5 days post conception (dpc), numerous cell types are present. Vasculature, nerves and smooth muscle reside within the mesenchymal stroma(3). This stroma surrounds a multilayered epithelium and gives rise to the fetal prostate through androgen receptor-dependent paracrine signals(4). The identity of the stromal androgen receptor-responsive genes required for prostate development and the mechanism by which prostate ductal epithelium forms in response to these genes is not fully understood. The ability to precisely identify cell types and localize expression of specific factors within them is imperative to further understand prostate development. In situ hybridization (ISH) allows for localization of mRNAs within a tissue. Thus, this method can be used to identify pattern and timing of expression of signaling molecules and their receptors, thereby elucidating potential prostate developmental regulators. Here, we describe a high throughput ISH technique to identify mRNA expression patterns in the fetal mouse LUT using vibrating microtome-cut sections. This method offers several advantages over other ISH protocols. Performing ISH on thin sections adhered to a slide is technically difficult; cryosections frequently have poor structural quality while both cryosections and paraffin sections often result in weak signal resolution. Performing ISH on whole mount tissues can result in probe trapping. In contrast, our high throughput technique utilizes thick-cut sections that reveal detailed tissue architecture. Modified microfuge tubes allow easy handling of sections during the ISH procedure. A maximum of 4 mRNA transcripts can be screened from a single 17.5dpc LUT with up to 24 mRNA transcripts detected in a single run, thereby reducing cost and maximizing efficiency. This method allows multiple treatment groups to be processed identically and as a single unit, thereby removing any bias for interpreting data. Most pertinently for prostate researchers, this method provides a spatial and temporal location of low and high abundance mRNA transcripts in the fetal mouse urethra that gives rise to the prostate ductal network.

PMID:
21876526
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3177421
Free PMC Article
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