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J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Sep;111(9):1329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.06.009.

Trends in vitamin D intake from food sources among adults in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area, 1980-1982 through 2007-2009.

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  • 1Divison of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.



Changes in eating habits could potentially be contributing to vitamin D insufficiency among US adults.


Describe secular trends in vitamin D intake from food sources during the past 25 years.


Trends in dietary vitamin D intake from 1980-1982 to 2007-2009 were examined using data collected from the Minnesota Heart Survey, a surveillance study of trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease among probability samples of adults aged 25 to 74 years in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area. Surveys were conducted in 1980-1982, 1985-1987, 1990-1992, 1995-1997, 2000-2002, and 2007-2009. One 24-hour recall was collected from survey participants during each survey period.


Vitamin D intake from food sources decreased between 1980-1982 and 2007-2009 among men, with age-adjusted mean vitamin D intake decreasing from 7.24 μg/day in 1980-1982 to 6.15 μg/day in 2007-2009 (P for trend <0.001). A decrease was also observed among women (4.77 μg/day in 1980-1982 in comparison to 4.53 μg/day in 2007-2009; P for trend <0.001).


Results suggest that vitamin D intake from food sources has been on the decline during the past 25 years among men and women, potentially contributing to vitamin D insufficiency.

Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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