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J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Oct 5;133(39):15773-85. doi: 10.1021/ja206906d. Epub 2011 Sep 14.

Comparative characterization of fungal anthracenone and naphthacenedione biosynthetic pathways reveals an α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen-like cyclization catalyzed by a dimanganese thioesterase.

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  • 1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

Abstract

The linear tetracyclic TAN-1612 (1) and BMS-192548 (2) were isolated from different filamentous fungal strains and have been examined as potential neuropeptide Y and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Although the biosynthesis of fungal aromatic polyketides has attracted much interest in recent years, the biosynthetic mechanism for such naphthacenedione-containing products has not been established. Using a targeted genome mining approach, we first located the ada gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015. The connection between 1 and the ada pathway was verified through overexpression of the Zn(2)Cys(6)-type pathway-specific transcriptional regulator AdaR and subsequent gene expression analysis. The enzymes encoded in the ada gene cluster share high sequence similarities to the known apt pathway linked to the biosynthesis of anthraquinone asperthecin 3. Subsequent comparative investigation of these two highly homologous gene clusters by heterologous pathway reconstitution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a novel α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen cyclization cascade, which involves a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that hydroxylates the α-carbon of an acyl carrier protein-bound polyketide and a bifunctional metallo-β-lactamase-type thioesterase (MβL-TE). The bifunctional MβL-TE catalyzes the fourth ring cyclization to afford the naphthacenedione scaffold upon α-hydroxylation, whereas it performs hydrolytic release of an anthracenone product in the absence of α-hydroxylation. Through in vitro biochemical characterizations and metal analyses, we verified that the apt MβL-TE is a dimanganese enzyme and requires both Mn(2+) cations for the observed activities. The MβL-TE is the first example of a thioesterase in polyketide biosynthesis that catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation without an α/β hydrolase fold and forms no covalent bond with the substrate. These mechanistic features should be general to the biosynthesis of tetracyclic naphthacenedione compounds in fungi.

PMID:
21866960
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3183131
Free PMC Article

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