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PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e22710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022710. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

A subadult specimen of Rubeosaurus ovatus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae), with observations on other ceratopsids from the two medicine formation.

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  • 1Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.



Centrosaurine ceratopsids are well known from the middle Campanian Upper Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Four taxa have been named: Brachyceratops montanensis, Rubeosaurus ovatus, Einiosaurus procurvicornis, and Achelousaurus horneri. Rubeosaurus has been historically the most enigmatic of these taxa; only two specimens, the holotype caudal parietal bar and a referred incomplete skull, have been assigned to Rubeosaurus.


A revised interpretation of the parietal processes of USNM 14765, the partial skeleton of a subadult centrosaurine formerly referred to Brachyceratops, indicates that it shares a P5 spike with the holotype of Rubeosaurus ovatus and should therefore be referred to that taxon. Brachyceratops is considered a nomen dubium.


USNM 14765 provides additional anatomical information for Rubeosaurus ovatus. These new data are incorporated into a recent phylogenetic analysis of centrosaurine relationships; Rubeosaurus appears as the sister taxon of a clade composed of Einiosaurus, Achelousaurus, and Pachyrhinosaurus.

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