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PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e22710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022710. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

A subadult specimen of Rubeosaurus ovatus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae), with observations on other ceratopsids from the two medicine formation.

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  • 1Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. mcandr@sas.upenn.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Centrosaurine ceratopsids are well known from the middle Campanian Upper Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Four taxa have been named: Brachyceratops montanensis, Rubeosaurus ovatus, Einiosaurus procurvicornis, and Achelousaurus horneri. Rubeosaurus has been historically the most enigmatic of these taxa; only two specimens, the holotype caudal parietal bar and a referred incomplete skull, have been assigned to Rubeosaurus.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

A revised interpretation of the parietal processes of USNM 14765, the partial skeleton of a subadult centrosaurine formerly referred to Brachyceratops, indicates that it shares a P5 spike with the holotype of Rubeosaurus ovatus and should therefore be referred to that taxon. Brachyceratops is considered a nomen dubium.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:

USNM 14765 provides additional anatomical information for Rubeosaurus ovatus. These new data are incorporated into a recent phylogenetic analysis of centrosaurine relationships; Rubeosaurus appears as the sister taxon of a clade composed of Einiosaurus, Achelousaurus, and Pachyrhinosaurus.

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