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Front Psychol. 2011 Jul 27;2:175. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00175. eCollection 2011.

Anti-voice adaptation suggests prototype-based coding of voice identity.

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  • 1Voice Neurocognition Laboratory, Social Interactions Research Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK.


We used perceptual aftereffects induced by adaptation with anti-voice stimuli to investigate voice identity representations. Participants learned a set of voices then were tested on a voice identification task with vowel stimuli morphed between identities, after different conditions of adaptation. In Experiment 1, participants chose the identity opposite to the adapting anti-voice significantly more often than the other two identities (e.g., after being adapted to anti-A, they identified the average voice as A). In Experiment 2, participants showed a bias for identities opposite to the adaptor specifically for anti-voice, but not for non-anti-voice adaptors. These results are strikingly similar to adaptation aftereffects observed for facial identity. They are compatible with a representation of individual voice identities in a multidimensional perceptual voice space referenced on a voice prototype.


adaptation; average; morphing; perceptual space; prototype; representation

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