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Exp Mol Med. 2011 Nov 30;43(11):605-12. doi: 10.3858/emm.2011.43.11.067.

Simvastatin inhibits osteoclast differentiation by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

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  • 1Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology.

Abstract

Osteoclasts, together with osteoblasts, control the amount of bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) acts as a signal mediator in osteoclast differentiation. Simvastatin, which inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, is a hypolipidemic drug which is known to affect bone metabolism and suppresses osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we analyzed whether simvastatin can inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through suppression of the subsequently formed ROS and investigated whether simvastatin can inhibit H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclast differentiation. We found that simvastatin decreased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a genetic marker of osteoclast differentiation, and inhibited intracellular ROS generation in RAW 264.7 cell lines. ROS generation activated NF-κB, protein kinases B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways such as c-JUN N-terminal kinases, p38 MAP kinases as well as extracellular signal- regulated kinase. Simvastatin was found to suppress these H2O2-induced signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Together, these results indicate that simvastatin acts as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor through suppression of ROS-mediated signaling pathways. This indicates that simvastatin has potential usefulness for osteoporosis and pathological bone resorption.

PMID:
21832867
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3249586
Free PMC Article

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