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Clin Plast Surg. 2011 Jul;38(3):329-34, v. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2011.02.004.

An overview of cosmetic medicine and surgery: past, present, and future.

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  • 1Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.


The evolution of thought and process in cosmetic medicine and surgery has united specialists from various backgrounds with the goal of providing safe, reproducible techniques to improve the various elements of the aging face from within and without. The realization that the aging face is both vector and volume based has dramatically altered the approach to reversing the signs of aging. Ultimately, it was the joining of forces from multiple specialties that provided a blueprint for impressive improvement in the return of a youthful, natural look.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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