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J Immunol. 2011 Sep 1;187(5):2464-75. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101406. Epub 2011 Jul 29.

AID recruits UNG and Msh2 to Ig switch regions dependent upon the AID C terminus [corrected].

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Immunol. 2014 May 15;192(10):4934.


Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is induced in B cells during an immune response and is essential for both class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation of Ab genes. The C-terminal 10 aa of AID are required for CSR but not for somatic hypermutation, although their role in CSR is unknown. Using retroviral transduction into mouse splenic B cells, we show that the C terminus is not required for switch (S) region double-strand breaks (DSBs) and therefore functions downstream of DSBs. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that AID binds cooperatively with UNG and the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6 to Ig Sμ and Sγ3 regions, and this depends on the C terminus and the deaminase activity of AID. We also show that mismatch repair does not contribute to the efficiency of CSR in the absence of the AID C terminus. Although it has been demonstrated that both UNG and Msh2-Msh6 are important for introduction of S region DSBs, our data suggest that the ability of AID to recruit these proteins is important for DSB resolution, perhaps by directing the S region DSBs toward accurate and efficient CSR via nonhomologous end joining.

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