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Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2010 Jan;2(1):39-49. doi: 10.1177/1758834009352498.

Targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: current treatment and future directions.

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  • 1BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 12 Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 4E6, Canada.


An understanding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways has greatly changed the way metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is treated. Based on available phase III randomized trials, anti-VEGF agents such as sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab-based therapy, and mTOR-targeted agents such as temsirolimus and everolimus have been used in the treatment armamentarium for this disease. Now that agents directed against these pathways have largely replaced immunotherapy as the standard of care, new questions have emerged and are the subject of ongoing clinical trials. The development of new targeted therapies including axitinib, pazopanib, cediranib, volociximab, tivozanib (AV-951), BAY 73-4506, and c-met inhibitors such as GSK1363089 and ARQ197 may potentially expand the list of treatment options. Sequential and combination targeted therapies are currently under investigation in advanced disease as are adjuvant and neo-adjuvant approaches around nephrectomy.


adjuvant; combination therapy; mammalian target of rapamycin; neo-adjuvant; nonclear cell histologies; renal cell carcinoma; vascular endothelial growth factor

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