Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ther Adv Urol. 2009 Aug;1(3):131-41. doi: 10.1177/1756287209342731.

Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux: current practice and the need for multifactorial assessment.

Author information

  • 1Section of Urology, Uppsala University Children's Hospital, S-751 85 Sweden.


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects around 1% of all children. It carries an increased risk of febrile urinary-tract infections (UTIs) and is associated with impaired renal function. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an established approach to managing the condition, but it does not protect against UTI and encourages bacterial resistance. Ureteral re-implantation (open surgery) is a relatively traumatic procedure typically requiring hospitalization, and there is a risk of significant post-treatment complications. Endoscopic treatment with NASHA/Dx gel (Deflux®) is minimally invasive, well tolerated and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery: 80-90% in several studies. It has also been shown to be effective in a variety of 'complicated' cases. Thus, endoscopic treatment is generally preferable to open surgery and long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Non-treatment of VUR is being discussed as an alternative option, although this mainly appears suitable for children with low-grade reflux and normal kidneys. A new approach to managing VUR may be considered, with treatment decisions based not only on the grade of reflux but also on factors such as age, sex, renal scarring and bladder dysfunction. Open surgery would be reserved only for use in the 10-15% of children not responding to endoscopic treatment and those with severe ureteral anomalies.


NASHA/Dx gel; Vesicoureteral reflux; antibiotic prophylaxis; deflux; ureteral re-implantation

Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (1)Free text

Figure 1.
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk