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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Aug;6(8):1858-65. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00500111. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Racial and ethnic differences in mortality among individuals with chronic kidney disease: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

Author information

  • 1Cleveland Clinic Medicine Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue/G10, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. jollys@ccf.org



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in minority populations and racial/ethnic differences in survival are incompletely understood.


Secondary analysis of Kidney Early Evaluation Program participants from 2000 through 2008 with CKD, not on dialysis, and without previous kidney transplant was performed. Self-reported race/ethnicity was categorized into five groups: non-Hispanic white, African American, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic. CKD was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g among participants with an estimated GFR (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or an eGFR of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The outcome was all-cause mortality. Covariates used were age, sex, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, albuminuria, baseline eGFR, heart attack, stroke, smoking, family history, education, health insurance, geographic region, and year screened.


19,205 participants had prevalent CKD; 55% (n = 10,560) were White, 27% (n = 5237) were African American, 9% (n = 1638) were Hispanic, 5% (n = 951) were Asian, and 4% (n = 813) were American Indian/Alaska Native. There were 1043 deaths (5.4%). African Americans had a similar risk of death compared with Whites (adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.07, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.27). Hispanics (AHR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.94) and Asians (AHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.97) had a lower mortality risk compared with Whites. In contrast, American Indians/Alaska Natives had a higher risk of death compared with Whites (AHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.84).


Significant differences in mortality among some minority groups were found among persons with CKD detected by community-based screening.

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