Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Science. 2011 Sep 2;333(6047):1300-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1210597. Epub 2011 Jul 21.

Tet proteins can convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine.

Author information

  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, USA.

Abstract

5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA plays an important role in gene expression, genomic imprinting, and suppression of transposable elements. 5mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) proteins. Here, we show that, in addition to 5hmC, the Tet proteins can generate 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) from 5mC in an enzymatic activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, we reveal the presence of 5fC and 5caC in genomic DNA of mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse organs. The genomic content of 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC can be increased or reduced through overexpression or depletion of Tet proteins. Thus, we identify two previously unknown cytosine derivatives in genomic DNA as the products of Tet proteins. Our study raises the possibility that DNA demethylation may occur through Tet-catalyzed oxidation followed by decarboxylation.

Comment in

PMID:
21778364
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3495246
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (4)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk