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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep;96(9):E1517-26. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0346. Epub 2011 Jul 13.

Standardized multidisciplinary evaluation yields significant previously undiagnosed morbidity in adult women with Turner syndrome.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.



Besides short stature and gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with various abnormalities. Adults with TS have a reduced life expectancy, mainly related to structural abnormalities of the heart and aorta, and an increased risk of atherosclerosis.


Our objective was to investigate the yield of an initial standardized multidisciplinary screening in adult TS patients.


This was an observational study at a multidisciplinary care unit for adult women with TS.


Participants were adult women with TS (n = 150). Mean age was 31.0 ± 10.4 yr, with 47% karyotype 45,X.


All women were consulted by an endocrinologist, a gynecologist, a cardiologist, an otorhinolaryngologist, and when indicated, a psychologist. The screening included magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and aorta, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, renal ultrasound, audiogram, and laboratory investigations according to international expert recommendations.


New diagnoses and prevalence of TS-associated morbidity were evaluated.


Thirty percent of patients currently lacked medical follow-up, and 15% lacked estrogen replacement therapy in the recent last years. The following disorders were newly diagnosed: bicuspid aortic valve (n = 13), coarctation of the aorta (n = 9), elongation of the transverse aortic arch (n = 27), dilation of the aorta (n = 34), osteoporosis (n = 8), osteopenia (n = 56), renal abnormalities (n = 7), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 33), celiac disease (n = 3), glucose intolerance (n = 12), dyslipidemia (n = 52), hypertension (n = 39), and hearing loss warranting a hearing aid (n = 8). Psychological consultation was needed in 23 cases.


Standardized multidisciplinary evaluation of adult women with TS as advocated by expert opinion is effective and identifies significant morbidity. Girls with TS benefit from a careful transition to ongoing adult medical care.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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