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Int J Hypertens. 2011;2011:417594. doi: 10.4061/2011/417594. Epub 2011 May 25.

Management of hypertension in high-risk ethnic minority with heart failure.

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  • 1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA.


Hypertension (HTN) is the most common co-morbidity in the world, and its sequelae, heart failure (HF) is one of most common causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Current understanding of pathophysiology and management of HTN in HF is mainly based on studies, which have mainly included whites. Among racial groups, African-American adults have the highest rates (44%) of hypertension in the world and are more resistant to treatment. There is an emerging consensus on the significance of racial disparities in the pathophysiology and treatment options of hypertension and heart failure. However, African Americans had been underrepresented in all the trials until the initiation of the A-HEFT trial. Since the recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as an important medical condition, large clinical trials have shown benefits of OSA treatment among patients with HTN and HF. This paper focuses on the pathophysiology, causes of secondary hypertension, and treatment of hypertension among African-American patients with heart failure. There is increasing need for randomized clinical trials testing innovative treatment options for African-American patients.

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