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Viruses. 2011 Jun;3(6):714-49. doi: 10.3390/v3060714.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus: a model of NF-κB-associated tumorigenesis.

Author information

  • 1Cancer Institute, Medical Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Abstract

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), whereas the highly related HTLV-2 is not associated with ATL or other cancers. In addition to ATL leukemogenesis, studies of the HTLV viruses also provide an exceptional model for understanding basic pathogenic mechanisms of virus-host interactions and human oncogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the viral regulatory protein Tax and host inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB are largely responsible for the different pathogenic potentials of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 oncogenic pathogenesis with a focus on the interplay between the Tax oncoprotein and NF-κB pro-oncogenic signaling. We also outline some of the most intriguing and outstanding questions in the fields of HTLV and NF-κB. Answers to those questions will greatly advance our understanding of ATL leukemogenesis and other NF-κB-associated tumorigenesis and will help us design personalized cancer therapies.

KEYWORDS:

ATL; HTLV; IKK; NF-κB; PDLIM2; Tax; WWOX; immune escape; transformation; tumorigenesis; virus-host interaction

PMID:
21743832
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3131208
Free PMC Article
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