Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Dec;27(12):1259-69. doi: 10.1089/aid.2011.0090. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

SIVmac251 is inefficiently transmitted to rhesus macaques by penile inoculation with a single SIVenv variant found in ramp-up phase plasma.

Author information

  • 1Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA.

Abstract

Abstract Despite the fact that approximately half of all HIV patients acquire infection through penile exposure, there have been no recent studies of penile SIV transmission in rhesus macaques and the nature of the virus variants transmitted, target cells, and pathways of virus dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues are not known. Single genome amplification (SGA) and sequencing of HIV-1 RNA in plasma of acutely infected humans allows the identification and enumeration of transmitted/founder viruses responsible for productive systemic infection. Studies using the SGA strategy have shown that intrarectal and intravaginal SIV transmission to macaques recapitulates key features of human HIV transmission. To date, no studies have used the SGA assay to identify transmitted/founder virus(es) in macaques infected after penile SIV exposure. Here we report that SIV can be transmitted by penile SIV exposure. However, similar exposure to a high-dose inoculum infects only about half the animals, which is about 50% less efficient transmission than occurs after vaginal SIV challenge. In addition, only a single SIV env variant established the systemic infection in all five animals that became infected after penile exposure, a result that is consistent with low incidence and few transmitted HIV variants in heterosexually infected men. Our results suggest that the penile transmission of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques recapitulates the key features of penile HIV-1 transmission and may provide insight into host or viral factors that permit penile transmission and dissemination. Furthermore, this SIV challenge exposure route will be useful in testing vaccines and other prophylactic approaches.

PMID:
21732792
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3227244
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (3)Free text

FIG. 1.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 3.
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk