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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Oct;94(1):22-32. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.05.032. Epub 2011 Jul 2.

Pioglitazone delays proximal tubule dysfunction and improves cerebral vessel endothelial dysfunction in normoalbuminuric people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  • 1Department of Nephrology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, County Emergency Hospital, Timisoara, Romania. ligiapetrica@rdslink.ro



The renal and cerebral protective effects of pioglitazone were assessed in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).


A total of 68 normoalbuminuric type 2 DM patients were enrolled in a one-year open-label randomized controlled trial: 34 patients (pioglitazone-metformin) vs. 34 patients (glimepiride-metformin). All patients were assessed concerning urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR), urinary alpha1-microglobulin, urinary beta2-microglobulin, plasma asymmetric dymethyl-arginine (ADMA), GFR, hsC-reactive protein, fibrinogen, HbA1c; pulsatility index, resistance index in the internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery, intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery; cerebrovascular reactivity was evaluated through the breath-holding test.


At 1 year there were differences between groups regarding ADMA, urinary beta2-microglobulin, urinary alpha1-microglobulin, parameters of inflammation, serum creatinine, GFR, UACR, the cerebral haemodynamic indices. Significant correlations were found between alpha 1-microglobulin-UACR (R(2)=0.143; P=0.001) and GFR (R(2)=0.081; P=0.01); beta2-microglobulin-UACR (R(2)=0.241; P=0.0001) and GFR (R(2)=0.064; P=0.036); ADMA-GFR (R(2)=0.338; P=0.0001), parameters of inflammation, HbA1c, duration of DM, cerebral indices. There were no correlations between ADMA-UACR, urinary alpha1-microglobulin and beta2-microglobulin.


Proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction precedes albuminuria and is dissociated from endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 DM. Pioglitazone delays PT dysfunction and improves cerebral vessels endothelial dysfunction in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 DM.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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