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Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;111:63-9. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0693-8_11.

Intracranial hemorrhage: mechanisms of secondary brain injury.

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  • 1Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.


ICH is a disease with high rates of mortality and morbidity, with a substantial public health impact. Spontaneous ICH (sICH) has been extensively studied, and a large body of data has been accumulated on its pathophysiology. However, the literature on traumatic ICH (tICH) is limited, and further investigations of this important topic are needed. This review will highlight some of the cellular pathways in ICH with an emphasis on the mechanisms of secondary injury due to heme toxicity and to events in the coagulation process that are common to both sICH and tICH.

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