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Aging Ment Health. 2012;16(2):228-35. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2011.583632. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Risk factors of dementia in North India: a case-control study.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.



The prevalence of dementia in northern India is among the lowest in the world but reasons are unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk and protective factors for dementia in North India.


In a case-control study, we investigated demographic, medical, genetic, dietary, lifestyle, and sociocultural protective and risk factors associated with dementia.


150 patients of dementia (118 males and 32 females) and 150 healthy controls (112 males and 38 females) were included in the study. Diabetes, depression, hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperlipidemia, APOE ε4 gene, BMI, use of saturated fatty acids, pickles in diet, urban living, and lack of exercise were associated with independent risk of dementia. Various dietary factors and sociocultural factors, like cognitively stimulating activities, active socialization, living in joint families, increased intake of polyunsaturated fats, fruits, and salads conferred protection against dementia.


Dietary, lifestyle, and sociocultural interventions may be protective against dementia.

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