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Drugs. 2011 Jun 18;71(9):1133-52. doi: 10.2165/11591360-000000000-00000.

Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: screening and treatment strategies.

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  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School, Brown University/Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Abstract

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV interact in deadly synergy. The high burden of TB among HIV-infected individuals underlies the importance of TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention for clinicians involved in HIV care. Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV infection in resource-limited settings, many individuals in need of therapy initiate ART too late and have already developed clinically significant TB by the time they present for care. Many co-infected individuals are in need of concurrent ART and anti-TB therapy, which dramatically improves survival, but also raises several management challenges, including drug interactions, shared drug toxicities and TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Due to the survival benefits of promptly initiating ART among all HIV-infected individuals, including those with TB, it is recommended that co-infected individuals receive treatment for both diseases, regardless of CD4+ cell count. We review current screening and treatment strategies for TB and HIV co-infection. Recent findings and ongoing studies will assist clinicians in managing the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV co-infection, which remains a major global health challenge.

PMID:
21711060
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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