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Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 Jun;10(6):811-23. doi: 10.1586/erv.11.68.

Neuroendocrine cancer vaccines in clinical trials.

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  • 1Centre for Gene Therapeutics, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3Z5, Canada.


This article focuses on neuroendocrine cancer vaccines that have been evaluated in human clinical trials within the last 5 years. The definition of what constitutes a neuroendocrine tumor requires clarification. Strategies and barriers common to cancer vaccines are highlighted. In general, neuroendocrine cancer is rare; however, special attention will be paid to neuroblastoma and small-cell-lung cancer owing to their relatively higher prevalence. A variety of other neuroendocrine tumor vaccine trials will also be addressed. The common problem of generating only sporadic tumor-specific immune responses that are of low-magnitude will be discussed in detail, with recommendations for future directions.

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