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Clin Liver Dis. 2011 May;15(2):223-43, vii-x. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2011.03.006.

The global epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: present and future.

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  • 1Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS-5020, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852-7234, USA.


The global risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been largely driven by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for the past century, along with hepatitis C virus (HCV), aflatoxin, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity/diabetes. The dominant effect of HBV on global HCC risk should decline as the population vaccinated against HBV grows older. Infection with HCV is also expected to decline. Projections of HCV-related HCC rates remaining high for another 30 years may be overly pessimistic. Alcohol may be less of a factor in HCC in coming years. However, obesity and diabetes may become even more important risk factors for HCC.

Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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