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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Jul;15(7):925-32. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.10.0477.

Anemia in adults with tuberculosis is associated with HIV and anthropometric status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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  • 1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



Tuberculosis (TB) infected adults attending out-patient TB clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


To examine the association of anemia with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, indicators of socio-economic status (SES) and anthropometric status in TB-infected adults.


Cross-sectional data collection during screening for a clinical trial.


Overall, 750 females and 1693 males participated in this study, of whom respectively 49% and 24% were co-infected with HIV-1. Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in females than in males and in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative participants. HIV co-infection in this antiretroviral-naïve population was also associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin < 85 g/l) in both women (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.07, 95%CI 1.65-2.59) and men (PR 3.45, 95%CI 2.66-4.47). Although severe anemia was negatively associated with indicators of SES, especially in males, adjustment for SES indicators only marginally changed its association with HIV co-infection. In both sexes, anemia was inversely associated with anthropometric status, independently of HIV infection and SES.


Among TB-infected adults, anemia is strongly associated with HIV co-infection and anthropometric status, independently of SES indicators. As anemia is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in both infections, the management of anemia in TB-HIV co-infected patients warrants special attention.

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