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J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jul 13;133(27):10394-7. doi: 10.1021/ja203860a. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Graphene nanoribbons from unzipped carbon nanotubes: atomic structures, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical properties.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, California 94305, USA.


We investigated the atomic structures, Raman spectroscopic and electrical transport properties of individual graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, widths ~10-30 nm) derived from sonochemical unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a high percentage of two-layer (2 L) GNRs and some single-layer ribbons. The layer-layer stacking angles ranged from 0° to 30° including average chiral angles near 30° (armchair orientation) or 0° (zigzag orientation). A large fraction of GNRs with bent and smooth edges was observed, while the rest showed flat and less smooth edges (roughness ≤1 nm). Polarized Raman spectroscopy probed individual GNRs to reveal D/G ratios and ratios of D band intensities at parallel and perpendicular laser excitation polarization (D(∥)/D(⊥)). The observed spectroscopic trends were used to infer the average chiral angles and edge smoothness of GNRs. Electrical transport and Raman measurements were carried out for individual ribbons to correlate spectroscopic and electrical properties of GNRs.

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