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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jul;59(7):1165-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03476.x. Epub 2011 Jun 13.

Correlates and prevalence of insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in black and white older adults: the health, aging and body composition study.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. kshea@wfubmc.edu



To determine the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white older adults.




Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.


Nine hundred seventy-seven black and 1,604 white adults aged 70 to 81.


Logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis were used to identify correlates of vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <30 ng/mL) separately in blacks and whites.


The prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency was 84% in blacks and 57% in whites. Seventy-six percent of blacks and 56% of whites did not take a multivitamin; those who did not take a multivitamin were more likely to be vitamin D insufficient (odds ratio (OR)=5.17 (95% confidence interval (CI)=3.47-7.70) for blacks; OR=2.56, 95% CI=2.05-3.19 for white). Additional risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency were vitamin D-containing supplement use, female sex, and obesity in blacks; and winter season, low dietary vitamin D intake, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and female sex in whites.


Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in blacks than whites. Not consuming a multivitamin increased the odds of vitamin D insufficiency in blacks and whites. Knowledge of additional risk factors such as dietary intake and comorbid conditions may help identify older adults who are likely to be vitamin D insufficient.

© 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

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