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Wilderness Environ Med. 2011 Jun;22(2):156-66. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2011.03.003.

Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite.

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  • 1Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.


The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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